Spencer ProctorSpencer Proctor, PhD

Office:      4-002J Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Research Innovation
Mail:         University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB Canada T6G 2E1
Phone:      780-492-4672 (Office)
                780-492-6358 (Lab)
Fax:          780-492-9270
Email:       spencer.proctor@ualberta.ca

 

 

 

 

Current Position

Associate Professor
HSFC New Investigator
Director, Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases Laboratory
Alberta Institute for Human Nutrition
Division of Human Nutrition
Molecular Cell Biology of Lipids
Alberta Diabetes Institute
Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute

Research Area

 

Understanding the aspects of nutrition on insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes (including obesity) that can exacerbate cardiovascular disease

 

Research Goals

 

Areas of focus include:
1. Absorption/metabolism of dietary lipids in health, cardiovascular risk and the Metabolic Syndrome.
2. Interaction of lipids with arterial vessels during atherosclerosis and insulin resistance.
3. Novel bio-activity of dietary fatty acids and impact to the Metabolic Syndrome.

 

Current Research Activities

 

Granting Agency:  Alberta Livestock and Meat Agency (ALMA)-Strategic Initiative
Title:  Communicating the Ruminant (Natural) Trans Fatty Acids (rTFA) Health Evidence.
Researcher:  Katherine Loughlin (PI) Proctor SD (Co-PI)
Start/End Date:  2012
Stage of Project:  Communication of research findings and program/policy development

 

Granting Agency:  Merck & Co.
Title:  Discovery of enterocyte lipid trafficking pathways that regulate intestinal absorption and efflux of dietary lipids.
Researcher:  Proctor SD (PI)
Start/End Date:  2011-2013
Stage of Project:  Significant delay in contract negotiations, currently in discovery stage

Granting Agency:  Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation- Fundamental Research Projects
Title: Influence of Mediterranean type breakfast on lipid changes postprandial and inflammatory processes in preadolescent and obese adults.
Researchers:  Perona JS (PI), Proctor SD and 6 other (co-app)
Start/End Date:  2011-2014
Stage of Project: Significant delay in contract negotiations, currently in discovery stage

Granting Agency:  Alberta Livestock and Meat Agency (ALMA)-Research Program
Title:  Translating the Health Benefits of Ruminant Trans Fatty Acids.
Researcher:  Proctor SD (PI) + 3 (Co-PI)
Start/End Date:  2011-2013
Stage of Project:  (Multi-Project Grant)  Discovery stage.  (For Clinical Project SEE below ‘clinical’ section for further details).

Granting Agency:  Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada (HSFC)-Grant-In-Aid
Title:  Mechanisms that accumulate apoB48-remnant lipoproteins in arterial tissue by proteoglycans during atherogenesis and insulin-resistance.
Researcher:  Proctor SD (PI)
Start/End Date:  2011-2013
Stage of Project:  Discovery stage

Granting Agency:  Dairy Farmers of Canada (DFC)
Title:  Modulation of endocannabinoid synthesis and hypothalamic neuropeptides by ruminal trans fats.
Researchers:  Proctor SD (PI) + 2 (Co-PI)
Start/End Date:  2011-2013
Stage of Project:  Discovery stage

Granting Agency:  Agriculture Funding Consortium (AFC)- Canadian Agricultural Adaptation Program (CAAP)
Title:  Development of anti-atherogenic milk to improve human health.
Researchers:  Proctor SD (PI)
Start/End Dates:  2011-2012
Stage of Project:  Significant delay in contract negotiations.  Discovery stage.

Granting Agency:  Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)-Discovery
Title: Enterocyte lipid trafficking pathways that regulate intestinal absorption and efflux of dietary lipids.
Researchers:  Proctor SD (PI) 6 other (co-app)
Start/End Dates:  2010-2015
Stage of Project:  Discovery stage

Granting Agency:  Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) - Strategic Projects
Title: Hawthorn as a new Canadian agroforestry crop for functional foods and nutraceuticals.
Researchers:  Dickson TA (PI) Proctor SD (co-app)
Start/End Date:  2009-2012
Stage of Project:  Translational stage

 

Human Studies

 

Grant Agency:  Alberta Livestock and Meat Agency (ALMA)-Research Program
Title:  Translating the Health Benefits of Ruminant Trans Fatty Acids.
Researchers:  Proctor SD (PI) + 3 (Co-PI)
Start/End Dates:  2011-2015

Study Synopsis: (Multi-Project Grant-Clinical Project)  To investigate the impact of a diet enriched in trans-11 vaccenic acid on circulating plasma lipid and apolipoprotein concentrations in hyper-TG male subjects. We have shown that vaccenic acid upregulates lipogenic pathways under conditions of dyslipidemia. Based on this, we anticipate that consumption of vaccenic acid will lead to reduced plasma triglyceride. We also anticipate reductions in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentration with consumption of vaccenic acid.  To examine the impact of vaccenic acid on inflammation and immune response. We hypothesize that unlike iTFA, when fed a diet enriched in vaccenic acid, MLN cells will produce higher concentrations of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, and will reduce inflammation as measured by CRP and CRP production rate.

 

Study Status:  Project is in progress
Contact Info:  Dr. Spencer Proctor, spencer.proctor@ualberta.ca, 780-492-4672

 

 

Grant Agency:  Canadian Institutes of Health Research-Operating-Clinical
Title:  Hypolipidemic effects of Dietary Trans-11 Vaccenic Acid Supplmentation in Naïve Hyper-Lipidemic Subjects
Researchers:  Proctor SD (PI) and 2 (co-app)
Start/End Date:  2012-2014

Study synopsis:  The primary focus of this proposal is to determine the potential for dietary trans vaccenic acid to improve dyslipidemia in humans. Dyslipidemia is the most common lipid and vascular complication of obesity. This research proposal is a relevant research project as it uses vaccenic acid as an intervention to treat dyslipidemia in obese, with mild hyper-triglyceridemia. It is estimated that obesity-related cardiovascular disease cost the Canadian health system approximately $2.5 billion; the equivalent of 1.3% of total health care costs in Canada. It could be argued that a sedentary lifestyle and a diet high in saturated and industrial trans fats, has fuelled the increasing prevalence of obesity and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and

 

type 2 diabetes. Although industrial hydrogenated oils (such as elaidic acid) have been associated with dyslipidemia and increased CVD risk, natural ruminant-derived trans fatty acids from dairy sources have not been unequivocally associated with CVD risk. Recent evidence from our group using an animal model of dyslipidemia has revealed that the predominant fatty acid isomer found in ruminant trans fat (trans-11 (18:1) known as vaccenic acid), may actually have hypo-lipidemic and anti-inflammatory health effects.  However, whether vaccenic acid exerts hypo-lipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects in humans with dyslipidemia remains unknown. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the hypo-lipidemic properties and anti-inflammatory effects of a diet supplemented with vaccenic acid (the main 18:1 trans isomer found in dairy products) as a intervention to treat a population of dyslipidemic obese men.

Study Status:  Newly awarded grant, preparing for start up.
Contact Info:  Dr. Spencer Proctor, spencer.proctor@ualberta.ca, Telephone: 780-492-4672

 

 

Granting Agency:  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Operating-Clinical
Title: Acquired abnormalities in the hemostatic system in obese children prone to Type 2 diabetes: Mechanisms and interventions for risk of cardiovascular disease.
Researchers:  Mitchell LG (PI) , Proctor SD and 2 other (co-app)
Start/End Date:  2011-2013

 

Study Synopsis:  To investigate abnormalities in the hemostatic system in childhood obesity and the relationship with the pro-inflammatory response associated with the onset of insulin resistance i) in cohorts of obese and normal weight children and ii) in an animal model prone to obesity and development of insulin resistance. In addition, we will assess the effect of interventions on these abnormalities i) in children participating in a randomised controlled trial of weight management ii) in an animal model of obesity undergoing a diet containing long chain n-3 PUFA.
Study Status:  In progress
Contact Info:  Dr. Leslie Mitchell, lesley.mitchell@ualberta.ca, Phone:  780-492-3137

 

 

Grant Agency:  Women & Children’s Health Research Institute-Innovation Grant
Title:  Understanding the role remnant lipoproteins in the development of childhood obesity and pathogenesis of subclinical atherosclerosis.
Researchers:  Maximova K (PI), Proctor SD (co-app)
Start/End Date:  2012-2013

Study Synopsis:  To assess apoB-containing lipoprotein concentrations and to evaluate the correlation between apo-B48 concentration and cIMT as well as other classic biomarkers of CVD risk in pre-pubertal children with or without obesity.

 

 

 

HYPOTHESIS: ApoB-containing lipoprotein concentration is elevated in obese relative to normal-weight children during the fasted state, and is positively correlated with other major CVD risk factors in pre-pubertal children.
Status of Study:  Newly awarded grant, preparing for start up.
Contact Info:  Dr. Katerina Maximova, katerina.maximova@ualberta.ca,  Phone:  780-248-2076

 

 

 

Other Activities/Affiliations

 

Current Membership and Community Representation:

2004-present   Director, Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases Laboratory, University of

Alberta

2004-present   Member and Co-Chair, Animal Care and Use Committee-Livestock, University of

Alberta

2004-present   Principal Member, Alberta Diabetes Institute, Edmonton, Canada

2006-present   Scientific Review Committee, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada

2007-present   Review Committee Nutrition, National Dairy Council, United States

2007-present   Primary Member, University of Alberta SCOLAR and MCBL Group

2008-present   Reviewer, Innovation Grant Advisory Committee, Women & Children’s Hlth

Research Institute

2009-present   Committee Member, Alberta Diabetes Research Coordinating Committee,

Edmonton, Canada

2009-present   University Animal Policy & Welfare Committee, University of Alberta

2009-present   Member, Committee for Animal Resources, University of Alberta

2009-present   Scientific Review Committee for Dairy Management Inc, United States

2009-present   Editorial Board Member, The Open Atherosclerosis & Thrombosis Journal

2009-present   Member, International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids

2009-present   Member, Canadian Society for Nutritional Science

2009-present   Director, Canadian Society for Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology

2010-2012       Co-Chair, International Conference on the Bioscience of Lipids, Banff, Canada

2010-present   Assistant Editor, British Journal of Nutrition, Cambridge University, United

Kingdom

2010-present   Member, American Heart Association

2010-present   Scientific Member, American Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology

2010-present   Scientific Member, International Atherosclerotic Society

2010-present   Associate Member, American Society for Nutrition

2010-2014       Secretary, Canadian Society for Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular

Biology

2011-present   Assistant Editor, Journal of Nutritional Science, Cambridge University, United

Kingdom

2011-2014       Member, Nomination Committee, Canadian Society for Atherosclerosis,

Thrombosis and Vascular

Biology

2012                Chair of the Organizing Committee, 46th Annual Nutrition Society of New

Zealand

 

Biography

 

Dr. Spencer Proctor trained as a physiologist and cardiovascular scientist in both Australia and Canada.  He was appointed to the Alberta Institute for Human Nutrition at the University of Alberta in 2004 and founded the Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases (MCVD) Laboratory.  Dr. Proctor’s research program spans a unique continuum of expertise in the areas of nutrition, metabolism, physiology, behaviour, food health and chronic disease. 

Expertise and relevance to Diabetes;

Our program utilizes a series of basic methodological approaches (pharmacological, biochemical and physiological) to investigate the impact of diabetes (Type 1 and 2) on the development of, and predisposition to cardiovascular disease (CVD).

 

In particular, we have expertise in the areas of imaging and vascular biology (confocal microscopy), lipid metabolism (dietary lipids and chylomicron cholesterol), insulin resistance and small animal surgical techniques/monitoring and sampling.

Our focus is to further understand the aspects of nutrition on insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes (including obesity) that can exacerbate CVD. In addition, we explore the vascular remodelling that occurs (proteoglycans and AGEs) in Type 1 diabetes and it’s impact to lipid and cholesterol accumulation. We routinely analyse a multitude of risk factors associated with diabetes and CVD, we trial pharmacological therapies in small animals models and explore new mechanisms associated with lipid accumulation in arterial vessels using in-vitro and in-vivo approaches.

Major Achievements

Research Highlights:

• We have been the first to provide visual evidence that intestinally derived cholesterol particles (chylomicrons) penetrate arterial tissue after hydrolysis to their smaller remnant form, and therefore contribute to the atherogenic process. 
• We have pioneered new fluorescent imaging techniques together with the application of confocal microscopy to assess the interaction of lipoprotein particles in arterial vessels that lead to the discovery that properties of vascular biology during disease (hypercholesterolemia and diabetes) can alter the rate at which lipoproteins become trapped in arterial vessels. 
• We continue to contribute to studies that correlate raised levels of chylomicron particles (measured as apolipoprotein-B48) and risk of heart disease in numerous clinical conditions. 
• We have developed a model of over-production of intestinal derived cholesterol particles (lipoproteins) during insulin resistance that is thought to contribute to dyslipidemia and CVD risk. 
• We have discovered lipid lowering properties of trans-11 vaccenic acid, a ruminant (natural) trans-fat that is commonly found in dairy products.

 

 

Selected Publications

 

1)         Proctor SD, Vine DF and Mamo JCL. Arterial retention of apolipoprotein B48 and B100-containing lipoproteins in atherogenesis. Current Opinion in Lipidology.  2002;13(5):461-470,Front Cover Feature. (IF=7.0)

2)         Proctor SD, Vine DF and Mamo JCL. Arterial permeability and efflux of apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins assessed by in-situ perfusion and three-dimensional quantitative confocal microscopy. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology.  2004,Jul;(11):2162-2167. (IF=6.8)

3)         Proctor SD, Kelly S and Russell JC. A novel of arginine-silicate improves Micro- and Macrovascular Function and inhibits glomerular sclerosis in Insulin-Resistant JCR:LA-cp Rats. Diabetologia.  2005,Apr;48(9):1925-32. (IF=5.7)

4)         Duez H, Lamarche B, Valéro R, Pavlic M, Proctor SD, Xiao C, Szeto L, Patterson BW and Lewis GF. Both intestinal and hepatic lipoprotein production are stimulated by an acute elevation of plasma free fatty acids in humans. Circulation. 2008,May;117(18):2369-76. (IF=11.2)

5)         Su JW, Lambert JE, Clandinin MT and Proctor SD. Impaired Postprandial metabolism of Apolipoprotein B48-Containing Remnant Particles in Normolipidemic Subjects with Brittle Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Care.  2009;32(2). (IF=7.8)

6)         Hassanali Z, Ametaj B, Field CJ, Proctor SD and Vine DF. Dietary Supplementation of n-3 PUFA reduces weight gain, and improves post-prandial lipemia and the associated inflammatory response in the obese JCR:LA-cp rat. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.  2010,Feb;12(2):139–147.  (IF=4.26)

7)         Ussher JR, Koves TR, Cadete VJJ, Zhang L, Jaswal JS, Swyrd SP, Lopaschuk DG,  Proctor SD, Keung W,  Muoio DM, and Lopaschuk GD.  Inhibition of de novo ceramide synthesis reverses diet-induced insulin resistance and restores whole body oxygen consumption.  Diabetes.  2010,Oct;59(10):2453-2464. (IF=8.5)

8)         Gavin C, Sigal RJ, Cousins M, Menard ML, Atkinson M, Khandwala F, Kenny GP, Proctor SD and  Ooi TC, on behalf of the Diabetes Aerobic and Resistance Exercise (DARE) trial investigators.  Resistance exercise but not aerobic exercise lowers remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol in type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial.  Atherosclerosis. 2010;(213):552-557. (IF=4.086)

9)         Mangat R, Vine DF, Forbes JM, Cooper ME, Mamo JCL and Proctor SD.  Increased risk of cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes: Increased arterial exposure to remnant lipoproteins leads to enhanced deposition of cholesterol and binding to glycated extracellular matrix proteoglycans.  Diabetic Medicine.  2011,Jan;28(1):61-72. (IF=2.8)

10)      Rueda-Clausen CF, Dolinsky VW, Morton SJ, Proctor SD, Dyck JRB & Davidge ST. Intrauterine growth restriction increases the susceptibility of rats to high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome IUGR, high fat diet and insulin resistance.  Diabetes. 2011,Feb;60(2):507-16. (IF=8.5)

 

H-Index  (May 2012) = 17

 

 

 

Trainees

 

STUDENT

DEGREE OR TITLE

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

ENROLLED

ANTICIPATED COMPLETION DATE

RESPONSIBILITY

Ms. Tina Ullrich

Visiting Doctoral

To determine whether the blood lipid-lowering properties of Niacin are a direct result of improvements in intestinal lipid production in the obese and insulin resistant JCR:LA-cp rat model of the metabolic syndrome.

Jan. 2012

Aug 2012

Co-Supervisor/

UofLeipzig

Mr.  Kaustav Majumder

Doctoral

QSAR-aided Study of Antihypertensive Peptides from Egg Proteins.

May. 2011

Sept. 2014

Supervisory/

Examination Committee Supervisor

Ms. Natasha Fillmore

Doctoral

Role of skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation in insulin resistance

Jan. 2011

Dec. 2014

Supervisory/

Examination Committee Supervisor

Ms. Sheng (Shannon) Wu

Master’s

The role of novel red yeast rice formulations to modulate lipid metabolism and reduce dyslipidemia and vascular disease in the JCR:LA-cp rat.

Jan. 2011

Dec. 2012

Primary Supervisor

Dr. Rabban Mangat

Postdoctoral Fellow

Research on the mechanisms that accumulate apoB48-remnant lipoproteins in arterial tissue by proteoglycans during atherogenesis and insulin-resistance.

 

Sep. 2011

 

Aug. 2012

Primary Supervisor

 

Dr. Ye (Flora) Wang

Postdoctoral Fellow

Clinical Research

Jul. 2011

Dec. 2012

Primary Supervisor

 

Ms. Jelena Kolic

Doctoral

Pleiotropic Effects of Rosuvastatin on Glycemic Control in a Mouse Model of Metabolic Syndrome

Dec. 2010

Jan. 2014

Supervisory/

Examination Committee Supervisor

Dr. Faye Borthwick

Postdoctoral

Fellow

Studies of the role ‘START’ lipid trafficking proteins

Sep. 2009

Aug. 2013

Primary Supervisor

 

Dr. Abdoulaye Diane

Postdoctoral

Fellow     

Behavioural aspects of food and weight maintenance

Dec. 2008

May 2013

Primary Supervisor

 

Ms. Karen Kelly

Doctoral

 

Investigating the effects of altered folate and B12 status on the development and severity of high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance

Sep. 2008

Sep. 2012

Supervisory/ Examination Committee Supervisor

 

Ms. Miriam Jacome

Doctoral

 

Novel dairy fractionation methodology to improve fat quality for nutritional health.

Jan. 2008

May 2013

Primary Supervisor

 

 

Websites of interest

 

MVCD